Mazda is on a roll these days, their current products heralded as best-in-segment in every class they compete in. Their designs have been stunning, especially in contrast to the current trend of excessively decorative styling, and their driving dynamics are top shelf. As a marque, the Hiroshima company is climbing the premium ladder, says the conventional wisdom. Yet, premium cars have been in Mazda’s portfolio from the beginning, typified by none better than the Luce. In this installment of Back Roads, we look at the long lineage of posh Mazda sedans, and specifically one of its ultimate descendants, the HD 929.
The Luce was one of the first Mazda production passenger cars, having appeared in 1966 as a rear-wheel-drive premium sedan. During this time, to give their pricier models an exotic flair (and to test the waters for export) many Japanese carmakers turned to Italian stylists for design, an example being the Michelotti-designed Prince Skyline Sport. The Luce was similarly influenced, by Bertone in this case, although the design was heavily refined in-house prior to production. The result was an elegant sedan that has aged into an outright classic beauty.
A wagon version was also produced, and both body styles were exported to the US. In fact, the Luce (called the Mazda 1500 initially), along with the R100, were the first US-spec Mazdas. Build quality was deemed high by the American press, although power and speed were not its strong suits. Nevertheless, it positioned Mazda as a higher end Japanese marque than the typical Datsuns, Toyotas and Hondas that were making waves in the US.
The cream of the original Luce crop, however, was the 1969-72 R130 Luce Rotary Coupé. Lower and more rakish in profile than the sedan and wagon, the R130 was an altogether different animal. For one, it was rotary- rather than piston-powered, but even then its rotary, the 13A, was unique, boasting a 30 percent larger displacement than its companion at the time, the L10A powering the Cosmo Sport. Furthermore, the R130 stakes a claim as the only front-wheel-drive production rotary Mazda.
Keeping in mind that front-wheel-drive was still relatively novel and seen as technically advanced at this time, this drivetrain, along with the four wheel independent suspension and luxurious appointments, conspired to make the Luce Rotary Coupé a state-of-the-art, sophisticated tourer. Not convinced? The Super Deluxe model of the Rotary Coupé actually cost more than the Cosmo Sport in period.
The Luce would go on many subsequent generations as Mazda’s full-size premium car. The second generation was sold abroad with the rotary engine as the RX-4 and with pistons as the original 929. The fourth generation was remarkable in that the platform, HB, was powered by the world’s first production turbo rotary engine. The Luce Rotary’s platform twin, the Cosmo Rotary Turbo, was for a time the fastest production car in Japan (though both rode on the HB chassis, the Cosmo had better aerodynamics aided by pop-up headlights).
The rotary turbo would live on in the subsequent HC-chassis Luce Rotary, making it one of the most unique full-size luxury sedans in history. The HC also enjoyed Mazda’s first production V6, the J-series engine, and exported to the US as the 929. Sadly, the rotary version never made it here, which brings us to the HD, a car deeply rooted in the Bubble Era.
When the new flagship sedan debuted in 1991, Mazda was in the midst of its massive diversification shakeup that saw the creation of the Eunos and ɛ̃fini marques. Perhaps not unsurprisingly, the HD adopted the new name of Sentia, while the historic Luce name carried on as a commercial vehicle on the HC platform in Japan. ɛ̃fini also received its version of the HD called the MS-9, a counterpart to Eunos’ new JC Cosmo. Abroad, the new car continued to be known as the 929.
The new car bore a revolutionary design much like the rest of Mazda’s contemporary lineup. The boxy HC shape gave way to a slippery, sensuous sedan that was wider, lower, and longer in wheelbase. The squat but handsome front end, whose design was reportedly inspired by Noh masks, flowed into a sleek pillared hardtop cabin and tapered dramatically towards the rear. The wraparound backlight was fast, the trunk lid long and low-slung, and the slender two-color taillights simple and elegant. With clean lines, smooth surfaces, and an expansive glass area, the car appeared quite futuristic. Overall, the HD was a fine example of dynamic yet classic design by Mazda of the era.
Underneath the skin, the HD was equipped with coil-sprung multilink suspension both front and rear, while Japanese models had the option of Mazda’s electronically-controlled speed-sensitive four-wheel-steering system. The engine was the J-series carried over from the HC, though now equipped with DOHC on both the 2.5 and 3.0L units. Power was routed to the rear wheels via a 4-speed automatic transmission. Output was 160 PS from the 2.5-liter, 200 PS from the 3.0, with the latter being the only choice in the US.
Beyond these mechanical specifications, the HD was unique in that it offered a number of forward-thinking options at the time. The most famous was perhaps the solar cells embedded in the glass moonroof, which powered fans to cool the interior on sunny days; a similar set up would later be seen on the third-generation Toyota Prius.
There were also fog lights that articulated with the steering angle, like modern cornering headlights. The cruise control was programmed with fuzzy logic to better adapt to the driver’s driving style. The exhaust even had speed-sensitive sound management courtesy of a butterfly valve on the tailpipes. There was certainly no lack of attention to technical detail to make it a sophisticated flagship sedan for Mazda. Inflation-adjusted, the new Mazda luxury sedan cost over $50,000 in today’s dollars.
As a longtime Mazdafarian, the HD has always fascinated me. Imagine our delight then when we spotted a pristine, albeit dusty, specimen hidden in that magical basement at Mazda’s R&D center in Irvine, California. Since that encounter, Mazda has restored the 929 and given us the opportunity to drive it on the model’s 25th anniversary. We jumped on the keys and took the Ivory 1992 929 out for a spin.
All 929s (and Sentias and MS-9s) were painted in subtle two-tone exterior color combinations. The Ivory wore a white upper body and a slightly off-white lower bumper and rocker panel. Our test car had the taupe leather interior in a similarly subtle two-tone color scheme. Being a 1992 model, it was (refreshingly) devoid of wood trim on the dash. The cabin subtly mirrored the wrap-around theme of the Eunos Cosmo.
The instrument panel was particularly distinctive, with a strip of matte black panel curved around the driver. Within this strip housed three classically circular inset gauges above the steering wheel, to the right of which was a climate control panel with compound curvature.
Another curious artifact of this ’92 model test car is the diamond-shaped “Eternal Flame” Mazda emblem that debuted the previous year. According to Mazda, the emblem design incorporates a pair of wings, the sun, and a circle of light in flame, a tribute to one of the company’s namesakes, Ahura Mazda, the Zoroastrian god of light.
After 1992, the emblem design was updated to a more rounded shape that better resembles flame (as well as a rotor, at least to this JNCer). The change was allegedly due to complaint from Renault, whose longstanding logo is an elongated diamond. The test car, however, sported the later emblem on the wheel center caps, perhaps a sign of its development duties.
Opening the door to the 929, and the first thing you notice is the frameless door window in the best Japanese hardtop sedan tradition. Settling into the plush seats — whose ergonomic development took four painstaking years — and you notice the distinctive style of the cabin. Part of that comes from the 929’s low belt line and expansive side windows, which, combined with the relatively low-back front seat, makes you very much feel that you ride on it rather than in it, in sharp contrast to modern bathtub seating.
On the road, the HD 929’s long wheelbase endows it with a stable and serene ride, while the damping setup lets it glide comfortably from bump to bump. This is a graceful touring car, not a spritely Miata. One almost feels that a chauffeur would not be terribly out of order. In fact, in Japan, the Luce has over the years joined the ranks of full-size Japanese premium sedans such as the Nissan Cedric and Toyota Crown.
Perfectly in line with this mannerism is the speed-sensitive exhaust silencer, which, unlike the gauche luxury sleds of today, or even the similar-era Mitsubishi 3000GT VR-4, it actually reduces noise output. Incidentally, the 929 name was suffix’d in Canada as the Serenia.
Driving the 929 was a rare treat. In terms of design, it truly is a gorgeous object inside and out. The details, especially those associated with traditional Japanese hardtop sedans, are charming, nostalgic, and rarely accessible on this side of the Pacific. It is a calming beauty, a graceful and elegant luxury sedan, the likes of which have all but disappeared from today’s market. On top of all that, there is the understated reminder that the HD platform shares some components with the haloed JC Eunos Cosmo — for one, both cars use the same exterior mirror.
Like many remarkable cars of the Bubble Era, the HD 929’s timing was a big part of its downfall as it came to market. Production lasted only until 1995, after which it was pulled from US shores. With that, the 929 marked the end of an era, as it was the final rear-wheel-drive Japanese sedan imported into the US that didn’t wear a luxury badge á la Lexus or Infiniti.
With no direct replacement, its de facto successor in the US was the Millenia, while in the home market it was followed by the HE generation. By the mid-2000s, a flagship sedan would be absent from Mazda’s lineup altogether.
More recently, however, the Atenza/6 has taken up the mantel of Mazda’s flagship sedan, with class-leading design and superior driving dynamics. As Mazda continues in its current trajectory, its successor is likely to be an even more impressive flagship sedan, perhaps even a return to the 929 or Luce motif. For those seeking a nostalgic Mazda and a traditional Nihon luxury sedan, however, the HD 929 is a much overlooked classic.
I’ve always wanted to drive a well taken care of HD 929 and after working at a Mazda dealer from 2014 to this past Feb I have only seen one HD come in. Unfortunately it was hanging on to life by a thread. 🙁
Let’s not forget though, the HC chassis 929 S trim that saw the 3.0 v6 DOHC as well in 90 and 91. I personally own a beat up but barely surviving one from 91. That car is a blast to drive albeit parts are so hard to find for it, it’s expensive to repair at times.
Where do you go to find parts? There is a beautiful VIP kit that I am trying to find for an HD and I only see it in grainy pictures.
That early coupe with the Fiat Dino-esque styling is to die for.
Can you imagine the sensation it would have caused if it were imported to the US at that time?
So many really pretty cars from Japan that we never saw, and mostly never even knew about in the day.
I imported an R130 Luce Coupe into the States a couple years ago. Even at 45 years old, it still creates a sensation with those who see it.
Really great article! The Mazda brand is such a Jekyll & Hyde brand for me. Go from a 60’s 3 Wheeler truck to a Cosmos to a 929. I would like to learn how the whole Ford thing came about… Another seemingly wierd twist (to me).
Ford and Mazda had a long relationship, Ford importing Mazda pickups in thr 1970s as the Courier, and Mazda selling Explorers as Tributes.
I’ve been waiting for a good 929 article! My grandparents had a ’92 for 20 years (my grandmother still speaks fondly of it). And I learned to drive in it. They chose the Mazda over the contemporary LS400 becasue of how sleek it was. It was the dark red, slightly purple (eggplant-ish?) color with the lighter interior and different wheels than your tester. It ran fairly trouble-free for it’s whole life (I think there was a transmission issue at some point). It had a few funny quirks like no cup holders at all and no dash glove box, but the car was very solid. The steering was very heavy and direct which was fantastic. It carried us for MANY long distance road trips in comfort.
I’d love to find one of the few remaining cars and restore it.
Anyway, thanks Dave and Ben.
I does have cup holders and one is slightly bigger than the other which is brilliant. They are located in at the bottom of the arm rest , you push in this thin slit and it slides out. I have a 1994 929, you can find it on my YouTube channel by typing my user name Andrenegwer ?
Great styling on those 1990s Mazda sedans. Perhaps a *little* generic-looking by today’s standards – it’s not always easy to tell apart a Mazda from a Nissan or Toyota – but equally the proportions are good and the details subtle enough that they’ve aged well.
I do miss the singleminded focus on refinement too. It’s one thing that made those early Lexus LS400s so special, and while some companies still do it well today (Lexus still, and Mercedes), there’s always a little too much focus on making something “sporty”.
Interesting how good the car looks on BBS wheels, in common with other Mazdas of the time. For a design so closely linked with German cars, those mesh-spoke BBS do seem to work very well on Mazdas, particularly in darker colours.
It’s so easy to forget what a great era of design the ’90s were, mostly because cars were so nuanced compared to the all-caps “design language” that cars shout across the room today. The 626 makes you look for its details, and then rewards you when you find them, like the studded rings on the gauges, or the way the center vent is concealed in the meter hood. Graceful indeed.
Even then, though, I remember some reviewers faulting the new 929 for not having wood trim inside (they had railed on the early Q45 for similar efforts to defy 18th-century furniture styling). Mazda not only relented and added it for ’93, they put it on the cover of the brochure. I remember feeling disappointed, like they had added opera windows or a landau top. Still a beautiful and fascinating car, though, then and today. Excellent storytelling in words and pics as always, Dave and Ben!
No story on how the 929 was supposed to be an Amati? I remember someone posting a story earlier. At the time, I had an older Audi 5000S turbo, when I was intrigued by the 929 and especially its solar sunroof. My wife at the time had a 323.
I bet you can find a 929 for a song, although finding one with the solar sunroof would be gold.
The Amati sedan did arrive as the next generation HE Sentia, but only with a V6, and it did also become manufactured as the Kia Enterprise only in S. Korea.
Fantastic article. There can NEVER be enough Mazda love. I personally will always have a soft spot for Mazda and Isuzu, my two favorite Japanese marques.
I love the HC i had 2 of them but transmission problems loves HC and HD 929 🙁
jUST BOUGHT A 929 HD, drives a bit like a noisy and powerful little go kart! I find the boot trim to be cheap, steering very light. In fact the whole car feels light, giving it great take off and smooth acceleration from the 3.0 dohc 4 valve per cylinder engine. Amazing round corners, so flat and responsive cant induce either over or understeer. Bit rough over bumps, maybe I need some new shocks.
Mazda needs to get themselves sorted. Rotary return long overdue, and Mazda management aren’t worthy of the name. Those that where there before them had passion and vision, today’s lot are lame. As good as my all original fd is from 92, it’s not going to last forever, and I want a new rotary. I’d like to see a rotary option across the range, I’d like a rotary Crossover, along side a 2018 rx2,3 and 4. Of course the vison and mx5 are rotary. And Mazda are back to Le Mans and wec with a rotary hybrid, and wrc with a rotary programm. Mad mike and Kyle mohans drift program are maintained, as they alone are responsible for introducing a new generation to the joys of rotary.
As much as I like the rotary engine, the Wankel’s day is done for the mass market in the USA.
It’s just too thirsty to sell in large numbers, as it would trash Mazda’s CAFE numbers, and it’s hard to make clean enough for Kalifornia, and other states that follow the KPR’s lead in emissions standards.
What I’d like to see from Mazda are two different rotary engined cars.
One, a spiritual successor to the original RX7, light, fast, and fun.
Two, a high end car on the order of the Acura NSX.
The rest of their line is really pretty good, though I still say they need an MX5 with a true fixed roof and hatchback, like the Triumph GT6, or the BMW M Coupe. In short, a Miata I could live with as a daily driver.
Beautiful design….typical crappy Mazda build quality. Zoom Zoom just before it goes Boom Boom lol
A very well written article and a great read 🙂 The HD certainly is a beautiful car, and in my mind still stands up today as a great design, especially as the author states referring to the “current trend of excessively decorative styling”. I dare say even the latest Mazdas have fallen in to that trend. And as another contributor here alludes to in regards to today’s styling, car designers seem to be caught in a trend of who “shouts” the loudest gets noticed. Many of today’s cars are almost completely over the top with a loud angular mish-mash of curves and sharp edges, they almost give you a headache just having to look at them 😛
That’s not to say that angles are a bad thing, particularly when they’re done right. There’s one name that comes to mind though when the designers have most definitely got it completely wrong, and that’s SsangYong Musso. They’re so damn ridiculously ugly just looking at one makes me sick and makes me want to gouge my eyes out 😛 For many other designers of today you’d think they were high on caffeine and have gone mad with pen strokes in the designing room. Some cars almost look like they’ve jumped straight out of a Playstation game 😛
Look at what is arguably still considered to be THE most beautifully designed car ever, the E-Type Jag, and then compare it to the HD. There’s no sharp, angles, no inconsistency of different compound curves on one body panel, and no prolapsed headlights or taillights, just simple sleek styling. Of course you can’t compare the Jag with the Mazda, but the principles are the same.
I remember taking a test drive in the HD when it was new on the showroom floors, and it was a joy to drive, except for one glaring problem, well, for me atleast, the car is designed for average height people. I’m 6′ 5″ and I almost had to stick my head out the sunroof to be able to squeeze into it. The same is held true for the Hardtop HC before it and the Hardtop HB before that.
Fortunately the HC series also had a sedan version, as did the HB, which I do fit into quite easily and comfortably, and I do own a HC sedan (and used to own a HB sedan), which I’ve had for quite a while now and is my pride and joy and has had quite a bit of attention and a few subtle mods/improvements over the years, but that’s a another story. Suffice it to say that even as old as the HC is, it too is a joy to drive and these days is quite unique 🙂 Seemingly diverting from tradition, a sedan version of the HD was never released. Most likely due to the financial burden of the Eunos and Efini ranges.
With the introduction of the HE I was relieved to discover that I actually fit quite easily and comfortably in that too. I’m in Australia and the HE was released here, but it’s as rare as rocking horse poo. They’re either still in the hands of the original owners or if they ever do go on sale they’re snapped up very quickly. In my humble opinion I think the HE is a bit classier than the HD 🙂 It was a sad day that ended the line of the 929, not only in the type of vehicle it was, but also as it was the last of the rear wheel drive Mazda sedans.
If you’re interested, you can check out the old HC here, bit.ly/My_Mazda_929
And here’s a couple of great links for reviews on the HD and HE from Australian Car Reviews;
GREAT article I didn’t think anyone cared about the 929. I have a like new 94 with 90k miles with solar sunroof, all options, original owner it’s Irvine if you want to drive it.
I found your article because only you knew about the hi speed sensitive exhaust silencer.butterfly value. Where is it? How does it work? Which tail pipe should the smog tech insert the sniffer?
I also have a 77 Rotary PU, 90 RX7 Convertible, 92 Miata Black and Tan Special Ed, 92 B2200 workhorse., used to have MX3 and Milenia, but the 929 is the best ever..I am a Mazda Maniac…my Dad was an original Dealer starting with the R100.
Thanks for true facts history lesson.
Thanks for the article! after reading it, it was the last thing i needed to pull the trigger on a ’92 929 that was low miles and stored inside its whole life. You captured the car perfectly and i like to call the 929 the 4 door rx-7 ( in terms of the early ’90’s Mazda looks and curves). I love all Mazda’s of the early ’90’s including the melted jelly-bean looking Rx-7 and the Mx-6.
hope i enjoy this new 929 as much as my previous Mx-6!
cheers from Canada!
How do you like it man? I might be in the same boat soon!